The concept and application of cybernetics in the

2022-10-24
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The concept and application of engineering cybernetics (Part 2)

simulation technology cannot be tested on an unfinished engineering system in the process of system design and manufacturing, or it is not suitable for such experiments because of the high cost. Using simple devices and different physical processes to simulate the controlled operation process of the real system is called simulation technology. In the early stage, physical simulation was the main method, that is, physical processes with different properties but easy to realize and observe were used to imitate the real process. Analog computer is a technology developed specifically for simulation technology. It uses the change law of electrical signals in the circuit to simulate the motion law of physical systems. Since the emergence of digital computers, hybrid computers have been used as simulation tools. With the improvement of computing speed and storage capacity of digital computer, digital computer has become the main means of simulation technology. As long as the corresponding software is compiled, various physical processes with different properties can be simulated. Simulation technology is a powerful experimental technology developed in engineering cybernetics, which enables designers to experiment any huge engineering system in the laboratory in a very short time and at a very small cost

evolution of application field engineering cybernetics originated from pure technology field. The automatic regulation of mechanical and physical variables such as speed, temperature and pressure is the earliest industrial application, and the automatic regulation theory is a theoretical summary of technological progress in this period. The emergence of automatic air defense systems and self seeking missile systems around World War II promoted the wide application of servo mechanisms and automatic control technology. After development and improvement, the theory of automatic regulation has risen to the theory of automatic control. With the emergence of the first electronic digital computer, the technical community began to develop automata with digital computing ability and logic analysis function, and the automatic control system immediately obtained the functions proposed in the intelligent control report. With a large number of cheap microcomputers entering the market, the automatic engineering system has fully entered the intelligent stage, and the full meaning of automatic control theory has been truly launched. From then on, the concept, theory and method of engineering cybernetics began to overflow from the pure technical field, poured into many non-technical departments, and derived new specialized disciplines such as social cybernetics, economic cybernetics, biological cybernetics, military cybernetics, population cybernetics, etc. After the birth of these new disciplines, they keep pace with their forerunners, and according to the characteristics of their respective fields, they abstract new concepts, create new theories and methods, and produce new content. On the other hand, they are twin disciplines after all, which have common origins and can learn from and complement each other in the process of progress. The principles, theories and methods shared by them, as the basic content of generalized cybernetics, have promoted the birth of another broader discipline - systems engineering

The entry of engineering cybernetics into the field of social sciences is one of the major achievements of contemporary science and technology. Due to the great progress of information science and information technology, the meaning of the word "Engineering" is expanding. Following the early pure technical engineering (machinery, electric power, chemical industry, water conservancy, aviation, aerospace, etc.), problems that traditionally belong to the category of social sciences can be handled by engineering methods, and they can make better decisions than pure administrative methods. Unexpected new discoveries are often made when analyzing the state, evaluating policies, predicting situations, and optimizing decisions of specific departments of social affairs, It leads to huge economic and social benefits. In the application of Engineering in social engineering, we should also pay attention to regular inspection. The technical means relied on by cybernetics to maintain the main engine, oil source and control system are completely different from those in pure technical engineering. The collection of information depends on the service life measurement method of every tool component in life, and the state analysis depends on the data communication network centered on the computer. The quantitative model of social affairs is stored in the computer database and becomes the dynamic image of those social fields to be studied or managed. It takes a long time to carry out new policy experiments in the social field, which is often accompanied by certain risks, so mathematical simulation plays a very important role here. The data state analysis, model extraction, system design and policy optimization of wear spots can be completed in a very short time in the laboratory. The setting and implementation of policy variables can only be carried out in the form of government decrees and through the relevant government or business management institutions, rather than driven by mechanical or other physical signals as in pure technical engineering. State feedback should also be realized through information network with the participation of people. Therefore, computer centered information system is the technical basis of social engineering, and it is also the prerequisite for engineering cybernetics to be used in the social category. In addition, operations research, game theory, planning theory, queuing theory, inventory theory and other mathematical theories developed independently of engineering cybernetics in history, as well as relevant economic and sociological theories, are often used in model abstraction and policy optimization analysis. Due to the close cooperation between natural scientists and social scientists, a new discipline - decision science is emerging

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